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Research on ‘Medical Errors’ Published in Journal of Patient Safety

NOTE:  Our peer-reviewed article concerning the prevalence of medical errors experienced by Iowans has been published in the September 2020 issue of the international publication, Journal of Patient Safety (JPS).  The article summarizes the experiences and opinions of a statistically representative sample of 1,010 Iowans, and provides new insights on approaches Iowa can take to determine the extent of the problem and develop solutions to obtain safer care for patients. 

The article, “Medical Errors in Iowa: Prevalence and Patients’ Perspectives,” was co-authored by myself and two others: David R. Andresen, PhD and Andrew Williams, MA. The article reports that medical errors, also known as preventable adverse events, are seldom voluntarily reported by healthcare providers in Iowa and the U.S.

Quantifying the magnitude of the medical error problem is an essential first-step toward solving these safety issues. The hope is that vulnerabilities in the healthcare delivery process will be exposed so that solutions can be found. However, the U.S. does not have a bona fide national strategy to assess medical errors, and, as a result, hospitals and clinicians around the country do not report medical errors accurately and consistently.

The JPS article suggests there is no single method for healthcare providers to promote full, transparent reporting of medical errors. However, the approaches described can serve as a counter-balance to lax provider reporting that includes the patient experience and perspective:

  • Implement mandatory provider reporting and appropriate compliance enforcement. From this, reported errors can help medical organizations more clearly understand exactly what happened, regardless of the outcome of the error, and identify the combination of factors that caused the error or near-miss to occur.
  • Create a central state repository for patients to report medical errors, making sure the reporting process is uncomplicated.
  • Develop an on-going, independent, random-sampling process to survey patients (and family members) who recently received care to document the prevalence and nature of medical errors. This is the most disruptive approach. From this collection process, state authorities, medical providers and the public will gain critical insight on the prevalence of medical errors, allowing for improvements. When errors are not reported and discussed, providers miss crucial feedback and learning opportunities.

The survey process can originate from claims data available through Medicare, Medicaid and private insurance companies. Patient experiences with medical errors can be collected and monitored for each medical provider, who would then receive systematic feedback about these errors to facilitate improvement processes. Through this data collection, results of medical errors would eventually be publicly reported for each institutional provider (e.g. hospital, surgery center, etc.).

A vast majority of Iowans have positive experiences with the healthcare system in Iowa. However, nearly one-in-five Iowa adults (18.8 percent) report having experienced a medical error either personally or with someone close to them during the past five years. Of those, 60 percent say they were not told by the responsible healthcare provider that an error had occurred. The survey found that hospitals were the most frequent site of medical errors (59 percent), while 30 percent of errors occurred in a doctor’s office or clinic, four percent in nursing homes and seven percent at some other location.

Among many important findings, the Iowa survey found that nearly 90 percent of Iowans “strongly agree” that healthcare providers should be required to tell patients about any medical errors. Additionally, 93 percent of Iowans “somewhat agree” (30 percent) or “strongly agree” (63 percent) the public should have access to medical-error information for each hospital and doctor.

Iowans feel strongly that medical errors must not be hidden from the public and should be reported, both to the patient and to an appropriate regulatory agency. Quality of healthcare will only improve when leadership, organizational culture and patient engagement are fully aligned. When seeking healthcare, patients deserve truthful, timely and transparent information about medical errors. Additionally, insurance companies can also contribute by embracing the safety of care their members receive from the medical providers included within their networks.

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